Top 10 Diseases of the Eye You Should Know About

Table of Contents

10 diseases of the eye

Your eye doctor will conduct a comprehensive eye health exam during which they will check for diseases like:

Jellylike substances in your eye that clump together into small spots and cast shadows on the retina is usually an indicator of a retinal tear.

1. Glaucoma

Millions of people suffer from glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Since it is an asymptomatic disease and only detectable through routine eye tests, regular examinations should be scheduled as prevention measures.

The front section of the eye contains a watery fluid that flows continuously to nourish all parts of it. Once drained away from the eye through a system of channels in its front portion, this excess fluid drains off through drainage channels in its front section; when these channels become clogged or blocked it increases pressure within it which causes damage to optic nerve cells that causes gradual vision loss that, left untreated, leads to blindness.

Glaucoma comes in two main varieties, Open-angle Glaucoma and Closed-angle Glaucoma. Open-angle Glaucoma involves an increase in eye pressure that gradually damages the optic nerve, often leading to tunnel vision; Closed-angle Glaucoma involves sudden pressure rises that may result in blindness unless immediate medical assistance is given.

2. Uveitis

Uveitis is an inflammation in the middle layer of the eye that causes pain, redness, light sensitivity and changes to vision. It may be brought on by diseases in other parts of your body such as sarcoidosis or rheumatoid arthritis; or through infections like herpes or Lyme disease.

Optic Neuritis symptoms vary in intensity and symptoms from person to person and may fluctuate over time, sometimes improving or worsening, becoming permanent damage that threatens vision loss – it is therefore vital that anyone experiencing similar symptoms seek medical advice as soon as possible. If these are present for you it is essential that an appointment be scheduled with an Ophthalmologist immediately.

Your doctor will conduct a full eye exam, dilatant the pupils to better view inside of your eye, perform blood or x-ray tests to ascertain the cause of uveitis, and prescribe treatment (steroid eye drops and oral medications) to control inflammation.

3. Cone-shaped cornea

Keratoconus is an eye disease in which the clear front surface of your eye (the cornea) gradually thins and bulges into a cone-like shape, blocking light from entering properly and creating blurry, distorted vision. Symptoms often first become evident during teens or early twenties and usually affect both eyes, though progress may occur more rapidly in one.

Symptoms include blurry or distorted vision, frequent prescription changes and eye strain. No single cause has been established; however genetic predisposition and factors like excessive eye rubbing could play a part.

Specialized contact lenses can both improve vision and alleviate symptoms. Scleral and semi-scleral lenses offer stable fits that reduce pressure on the cornea for improved comfort, making these an excellent way to help alleviate symptoms.

4. Macular degeneration

Macular degeneration, commonly referred to as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is the breakdown of the macula that results in blurry central vision, often leading to difficulty with recognising faces, reading or driving. It does not impact peripheral (side) vision in any way.

AMD occurs when light-sensing cells in the macula cease functioning normally. It is usually slow and progressive, leading to gradual central vision loss as time progresses – it is the leading cause of severe vision loss among those aged 65 or above. Dry macular degeneration is more commonly experienced; its hallmark signs include tissue thinning and yellow deposits called drusen; an eye exam may detect early stages. A less prevalent “wet” form occurs when blood vessels form under the retina that then leak into macular regions affecting macular areas directly.

5. Cataracts

The lens within our eye should normally function like a camera lens, focusing light onto the retina. But as people age, proteins within their lens degrade causing vision to become blurry and distorted.

Cataracts are most often caused by age-related factors; however, other sources may include certain medications, UV radiation exposure and health conditions like diabetes. Cataracts tend to appear gradually with gradual vision changes over time.

Symptoms of cataracts include difficulty seeing in low lighting conditions, halos around lights, and blurry vision. While medications can provide temporary relief from cataracts’ symptoms, once severe enough they begin interfering with daily activities surgery is often advised – the process involves extracting the cloudy lens and replacing it with an artificial one; it’s safe and highly effective.

6. Diabetic retinopathy

Everyone with diabetes is vulnerable to diabetic retinopathy, which occurs when high blood sugar levels damage the retina – the thin tissue at the back of your eye that senses light – leading to blurred vision or blindness. The best way to protect against diabetic retinopathy is keeping blood sugar under control and scheduling regular eye exams.

At its onset, diabetic retinopathy – also known as non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), diabetic blood vessels become compromised, leading to microaneurysms forming that leak fluid into your macula and blur your vision. Later in this disease process, blood vessels may appear on the surface of retina and even break open, depriving oxygen from reaching retinal tissue and leading to macular edema (macular swelling) that eventually leads to retinal detachment that requires surgery for treatment.

7. Keratoconus

Keratoconus is an eye disease that gradually alters and thins out your cornea – the clear dome covering the front of your eye – until it bulges out into an abnormal cone shape, distorting vision by distorting straight lines into curvier ones and blurred ones. It usually affects one eye more severely than the other, creating distortion of vision that causes distortions such as straight lines appearing bent or wavy; symptoms typically manifest asymmetrically between eyes.

Early signs of Keratoconus include blurry vision that worsens over time, halos around lights, difficulty seeing at night and red and swollen eyes.

Doctors can prescribe special contact lenses such as rigid gas permeable lenses or hybrid or scleral lenses to improve vision and help prevent progression of keratoconus. Furthermore, they can offer advice about new minimally-invasive innovations like corneal cross-linking riboflavin.

8. Keratoisis conjunctivitis sicca (KCS)

Keratoisis conjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is a condition characterized by decreased lacrimal secretion that leads to dry and itchy eyes, diagnosed by physicians through clinical signs, diminished lacrimation, mucoid or mucopurulent discharge, Schirmer tear test and other diagnostic criteria. KCS may be linked to other systemic conditions like Sjogren’s syndrome or chronic sarcoidosis and may require medical management accordingly.

Tears provide essential lubrication and nutrition to the cornea and protect it against infection, making a vital contribution towards vision loss and even blindness. Without sufficient tears, eyes can quickly become red, irritated, infected and vision loss occurs rapidly if left untreated; treatment options include eyedrops containing antibiotics as well as topical creams that stimulate tear production. If symptoms arise for you or your pet please seek professional medical advice immediately to determine the most suitable approach to treating their disease.

9. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

Pink eye can be caused by bacteria, viruses, allergies or irritants and is highly contagious, spreading easily from person to person. Germs may travel from unwashed hands and clothing/towels onto unclean eyes – sharing personal items such as makeup could also contribute to spreading it further – with coughing/sneezing being another effective means for germs spreading further from nose or mouth into eyes.

Symptoms of conjunctivitis may include red and itchy eyes with watery or mucous discharge that is either watery or mucousy, depending on the type of infection present. Treatment includes using antibiotic eyedrops or ointments for bacterial infections while antihistamines or mast cell stabilizers may help alleviate allergic conjunctivitis symptoms. Furthermore, washing hands frequently and applying sanitizing solutions on toys or objects regularly touched by children can reduce spread.

10. Eyelid surgery

Eyelid surgery is a functional solution designed to address droopy upper eyelids (blepharoptosis). It may be performed by general plastic surgeons, ophthalmologists or some ear, nose and throat doctors and can alleviate issues like eyelid skin rubbing together, straining to lift sagging lids as well as drooping eyelashes which impede vision.

Procedures that remove excess skin or fat from upper eyelids (and, sometimes, lower eyelids) to create a more youthful appearance include eyelid surgery. It can help improve symptoms such as tearing, excessive watering and light sensitivity; correct entropion whereby eyelids turn inward and rub against cornea causing reddening, irritation and watery eyes; this usually returns the lid back into its regular position which improves these symptoms; also used to reduce crow’s feet appearances or ameliorating canthal lines.

About the Author:
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Alexander Suprun

Alex started his first web marketing campaign in 1997 and continues harvesting this fruitful field today. He helped many startups and well-established companies to grow to the next level by applying innovative inbound marketing strategies. For the past 26 years, Alex has served over a hundred clients worldwide in all aspects of digital marketing and communications. Additionally, Alex is an expert researcher in healthcare, vision, macular degeneration, natural therapy, and microcurrent devices. His passion lies in developing medical devices to combat various ailments, showcasing his commitment to innovation in healthcare.


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