Macular Degeneration

Macular degeneration is the primary cause of vision loss in the United States, impacting over 10 million people.

What Age Related Macular Degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a kind of eye disease that causes central vision to fade. It occurs when the macula — the region of the eye that regulates crisp, straight-ahead vision — is damaged because of aging. The macula is a component of the retina (the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye).

AMD is a prevalent disorder that is a significant cause of visual loss in elderly people. Although AMD cannot result in total blindness, losing your central vision can make it difficult to see faces, read, or drive.

types of Macular Degeneration


What types of AMD exist

AMD is classified into two types: dry and wet.

The first kind of AMD is dry AMD (also called atrophic AMD). This is the process through which the macula thins with age. Dry AMD manifests itself in three stages: early, moderate, and late.

Wet AMD (also known as advanced neovascular AMD) is a less frequent kind of late AMD that causes more rapid vision loss.  It occurs when aberrant blood vessels develop at the rear of the eye, causing damage to the macula.

What are symptoms of Macular Degeneration

The symptoms of AMD vary according on the stage. 

  • There are no indications of early dry AMD.
  • Some people with intermediate dry AMD may have slight blurriness or difficulty seeing in dim light.
  • Many individuals who have late AMD (wet or dry type) observe that straight lines become wavy or curved. A fuzzy region around the center of your vision may also be seen. This hazy region may grow in size over time, or you may see blank spaces.
symptoms of Macular Degeneration
causes of Macular Degeneration

What causes AMD

AMD might be caused by old age or genetics. Other factors, such as smoking, nutrition, or high blood pressure, might be to blame.

  • Bits of fat and protein (also known as Drusen) accumulate behind your retina, a layer of tissue at the back of your eye that processes light.
  • Extra blood vessels grow underneath the macula of your eye in Wet AMD. These new arteries have a tendency to leak blood and other fluid into your eye, causing injury.

How to detect Macular Degeneration

During an eye exam, your eye doctor examines the retina and macula and may use the following tests to detect AMD:

  • A lot of distortion in the Amsler grid test may suggest AMD
  • Dilated eye exam: After dilating your eyes, your doctor examines them using a special lens.
  • Fluorescein angiography: Fluorescein into an arm vein. A unique camera monitors the dye via the eye’s blood vessels. The pictures might indicate any macula leaking.
  • OCT: This imaging equipment takes comprehensive pictures of the retina and macula.
  • OCTA employs laser light reflection (instead of fluorescein dye) and an OCT scanning equipment.
How to detect Macular Degeneration​
Treatments of Macular Degeneration​

What treatments are available for AMD

  • There is no treatment for early AMD. Eating healthy, exercising frequently, and avoiding smoking may all be beneficial.
  • Taking particular vitamins and minerals may help avoid late AMD if you have intermediate AMD in one or both eyes.
  • Therapies for wet AMD may aid in the prevention of future vision loss:
    • Anti-VEGF drugs that are injected into your eye by your doctor
    • Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a technique that combines injections and laser treatment,
  • There is currently no treatment for late dry AMD, however researchers are working on one.

Who is most vulnerable to Macular Degeneration

  • This condition affects adults over 60.
  • A genetic history. This illness is inherited. Several genes linked to the syndrome have been found.
  • Caucasians have increased macular degeneration.
  • Smoking or frequent exposure to smoke raises the risk of macular degeneration.
  • Obesity may raise the risk of early or intermediate macular degeneration progressing to the more severe type.
  • Heart illness. Macular degeneration risk increases if you have had heart or blood vessel illness.
vulnerability of macular degeneration
How to fix Macular Degeneration​

How to fix Macular Degeneration

There is no known cure for AMD. Because no one has a complete treatment for macular degeneration, avoid “cures.” It is widely believed that supplements may slow the process of Macular Degeneration. The good news is that food and nutrition may enhance eye health. It’s never too late to start eating a healthy, balanced diet.

  • A diet rich in fruits and vegetables reduces the incidence of AMD.
  • Dark green leafy vegetables are best for your eyes.
  • Those who ate three fish dinners per week had a lower risk of AMD, but those who ate a lot of saturated fats had a higher risk.

What Low Vision devices are available for AMD

Low vision magnifiers and aids give visual solutions for everyday jobs and pastimes as the advancement of Macular Degeneration weakens central vision, causing pictures to lose crisp definition, darken, and blur. There are several low vision gadgets available today, each intended to satisfy the individual’s needs in terms of function and convenience of use.

  • Computer Monitor Magnifiers
  • Book Magnifiers
  • Handheld Magnifying Glass
  • Handheld Electronic Magnifiers
  • The Pebble
  • The Amigo
  • Portable Electronic Magnifiers
  • Desktop Low Vision Magnifier
How to fix Macular Degeneration​
Is Macular Degeneration an emergency​

Is Macular Degeneration an emergency

The good news is that visual impairment normally occurs gradually. However, there are two varieties of macular degeneration – ‘wet’ and ‘dry’ – and the ‘wet’ variety causes a rapid loss of central vision, which is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.

Wet Macular Degeneration happens when capillaries underneath the retinal layer bleed, causing retinal cells to die and resulting in blind areas or distorted vision in the central vision.

Who can help you with treating Macular Degeneration

Low Vision Specialist: They are qualified optometrists or ophthalmologists experienced in the evaluation, treatment, and management of patients with eye diseases that cannot be treated or corrected by medication, surgery, or glasses.

  • Determine the optimum low vision optical equipment for the patient
  • Improve lighting to help them see better

Retinal Doctor: A retina specialist is an ophthalmologist who treats patients with retina disorders and performs office procedures like laser and intraocular injections as well as hospital procedures like vitrectomy.

treating Macular Degeneration
What happens if you don't treat AMD​

What happens if you don't treat AMD

Wet macular degeneration decreases our ability to see shapes, colors, and details. As a consequence, depending on the stage of the disease, you may have:

  • hazy vision
  • Straight lines seem wavy.
  • Identification, reading, and color blindness
  • Low-light vision impairment
  • Center vision occlusions (blind spots)

The Charles Bonnet Syndrome CBS: When you lose a piece of your vision, your brain compensates by creating up images that aren’t real. These visual hallucinations are called the Charles Bonnet syndrome, which is common in macular degeneration.

Is everyone going to get AMD at some point

Not everyone gets AMD or has it in both eyes. However, if you do, living with AMD vision loss may be difficult. Low vision implies that even with glasses, contact lenses, medication, or surgery, your vision loss makes it difficult to do daily duties.

Age-related macular degeneration is the most prevalent cause of significant vision loss in persons aged 50 and above. It is crucial to note that individuals seldom become blind because of it. AMD impairs central vision and, as a result, the ability to discern tiny details.

Is everyone going to get AMD at some point​

Find a nearby low vision professional

Visit a low vision specialist to learn more about low vision aids and choose the proper ones. Find one in your region.

macular degeneration wet vs dry

Macular Degeneration Wet Vs Dry

Learn about the distinctions between wet and dry macular degeneration, as well as how the symptoms, causes, and treatments can differ. Over 10 million people in the United States suffer

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