Preventing Common Eye Diseases

Table of Contents

common eye diseases

Early intervention can often help protect against eye diseases. Get regular exams and notify your physician if any new symptoms emerge.

Nearsightedness (myopia) is a condition characterized by distorting vision both near and far, due to an irregularly-shaped cornea. This condition may be treated using prescription eyeglasses, contact lenses or laser surgery and correction may be possible with either prescription glasses, contacts or laser surgery.

Refractive Errors

Refractive Errors occur when light entering the eye cannot focus properly onto the retina, leading to blurry vision. They are often caused by issues related to cornea and lens shape or age-related stiffness in the lens and symptoms may include glare around lights, squinting, headaches or discomfort when looking directly into a light source.

Myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness) and astigmatism are the three most frequently seen refractive errors, with myopia being by far the most prevalent condition. Treatment includes using power correcting lenses in order to focus light rays directly onto retina.

Children often become myopic early in life due to having long axial length or steeply curved corneas that cause near objects to appear clear, while distant ones become blurry. Hyperopia is also common and generally decreases by the time children reach adolescence. All three conditions can be corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses or refractive surgery – although uncorrected myopia can result in reading and learning abilities decline and lead to presbyopia as we age.


Eye alignment must be precise in order for us to see clearly, which can be compromised when any of the six extraocular muscles that control eye movement malfunctions. When this happens, children develop a condition known as strabismus (lazy eye), whereby their brain will ignore one image in favor of another one (amblyopia). Strabismus can occur at birth or acquired later through cataracts, neurological issues, Graves disease (thyroid eye disorder) or trauma to either eye.

Symptoms of crossed eyes (esotropia), where eyes diverge; hypertropia, where one eye is higher than the other (vertical misalignment); or both are present. Treatment involves patching non-dominant eye for short periods to force its alignment and, alternatively, surgery may be recommended to correct muscle imbalance and improve visual acuity.


Glaucoma is an eye disease that, left untreated, will eventually result in irreversible blindness. This occurs when intraocular pressure builds too rapidly within the eye and damages its optic nerve causing peripheral and eventually central vision loss. Since glaucoma typically develops slowly over time with no symptoms visible at first, regular eye examinations should be carried out for screening purposes to detect this progressive eye disorder as early as possible.

Optic nerves transmit visual information from your retina to your brain via 1.2 million nerve fibers. If these become damaged, blind spots will appear in peripheral (side) vision. Open-angle glaucoma occurs when fluid does not drain out at its normal rate and intraocular pressure rises; another major type is angle-closure glaucoma in which fluid exiting the eye becomes blocked suddenly and intraocular pressure rises suddenly as a result; both types can lead to intense pain, headaches, redness, blurry vision halos around lights or even nausea as a result of sudden high intraocular pressure rise resulting in intense pain, headaches headache redness blurry vision halos around lights or vomiting as symptoms.


Cataracts occur when the lens of the eye becomes opaque or cloudy, blocking light from entering and leading to vision problems such as blurred images, halos around lights or difficulty seeing in low-light conditions. A cataract is most frequently associated with normal aging but can also be brought on by genetics, metabolic disorders such as diabetes or eye injuries.

Opacity of the natural lens inside of your eye, known as cataracts, can significantly impede vision and impact your quality of life significantly. Early signs can often be detected during routine eye exams; early intervention by way of surgical removal by an ophthalmologist and replacement with an artificial lens can halt progression. Additional benefits may be gained by having refractive surgery performed as part of this procedure if other issues exist within their vision system as well. To reduce risks further preventative measures include eating healthily and wearing sunglasses with UV protection.

Retinal Detachment

Retinal detachment occurs when the retina detaches from its connection with the inner back wall of the eye. It focuses light into the eye and sends that information directly to your brain, creating visual images for you. If it becomes detached, permanent blindness could ensue. In order to prevent retinal detachments from happening again, regular examinations with dilated examinations using ophthalmoscopy and ultrasound imaging can detect tears or breaks in your retina that might lead to full-fledged detachments before becoming full-flexions.

Symptoms of retinal detachments include curtains or black shades obstructing one quadrant of vision and often being accompanied by flashes or floaters. Anyone experiencing these symptoms should seek medical care immediately as untreated detachments often progress to complete loss of vision and require full vision restoration surgery for complete resolution.

Retinal detachment can typically be treated surgically to seal retinal tears and reconnect the retina to its back wall of the eye. Your surgeon may use pneumatic retinopexy during this procedure – this technique involves injecting gas or silicone oil into your eye in order to press against retinal tears, sealing them back together again securely before gradually dissipating back into your system over a couple weeks and leaving you with your retina securely reattached to its backwall.


Presbyopia occurs when an eye’s ability to change focus becomes limited due to normal aging processes; specifically as its crystalline lens becomes less flexible. This makes it harder for light rays from distant objects to refract into clear near images, leading to reading difficulties and near distance vision issues.

Presbyopia typically occurs between ages 40-60, gradually progressing over time into mid-60s. Symptoms may include difficulty reading, using tools or threading a needle. Sometimes objects need to be closer or further away in order to focus on them properly.

Treating presbyopia typically includes using glasses or contact lenses with multifocal (progressive) lens geometry that accommodate multiple different prescriptions that blend into each other seamlessly, monovision contacts lenses (wearing one distance prescription and one near vision prescription respectively), or surgical alteration to the cornea that allows an eye to focus at different distances via LASIK surgery.


Ptosis (pronounced TOE-sis) refers to the drooping of an upper eyelid over its pupil and can cause it to block vision. Ptosis may range in severity and is most noticeable among older people, caused by stretching or separation of levator muscle tendons from their eyelid. Ptosis may also occur as a side effect from certain forms of eye surgery or tumor removal and neurological conditions that affect vision.

Congenital Ptosis (CongPtSis) is present from birth and occurs when there is improper development of the muscles that lift the eyelid. It may be associated with other facial abnormalities and typically found among children who also exhibit eye movement issues or muscular diseases; it may even appear in cases involving trauma to or tumors of the eyelid; rare disorders may also have congPtSis symptoms.

Blepharoplasty, or “eyelid lift,” is an increasingly popular treatment option for ptosis, and typically involves tightening or reattaching muscles responsible for lifting eyelids or tightening them more tightly in their original locations.

Retinal Pigmentation Disorders

The retina converts light stimuli into nerve impulses that travel to the brain and form visual images, but certain conditions may impair vision in some patients and lead to impaired visual acuity.

Pigmentation disorders, also referred to as melanin disorders, occur when cells that produce melanin (color pigment) in tissues like eyes and skin produce excessive quantities. This could be due to either too few melanocytes (vitiligo and nevus of Ota), or too much melanin production – such as in albinism.

A 26 year-old female presented with complaints of tunnel vision in her right eye and poor night vision in her left. Her medical, ocular, and family histories were unremarkable; fundus photos revealed slight optic disc pallor with attenuated vessels and perivascular pigment clumping in a bone spicule configuration with surrounding hypopigmentation; this diagnosis was confirmed through an ocular fluorescein angiogram as pigmented parvenous retinochoroidal atrophy which is typically non-progressive over time.


Styes are painful swollen red bumps near or inside of an eyelid, typically occurring due to oil glands being blocked with dirt, dead skin cells or makeup causing overgrowth of bacteria in oil glands and an infection with Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. They are easily treatable but should be monitored.

Bumps that look similar to pimples but filled with pus can last from four days with treatment to two weeks without it. A stye can be extremely painful and even obscure your vision.

Most styes resolve on their own with warm compresses and lid hygiene; if not resolved within several days they may form into larger cysts that obscure vision, known as chalazion. Left untreated they can spread to the eye socket causing orbital cellulitis requiring immediate medical intervention.

About the Author:
Picture of Alexander Suprun

Alexander Suprun

Alex started his first web marketing campaign in 1997 and continues harvesting this fruitful field today. He helped many startups and well-established companies to grow to the next level by applying innovative inbound marketing strategies. For the past 26 years, Alex has served over a hundred clients worldwide in all aspects of digital marketing and communications. Additionally, Alex is an expert researcher in healthcare, vision, macular degeneration, natural therapy, and microcurrent devices. His passion lies in developing medical devices to combat various ailments, showcasing his commitment to innovation in healthcare.


Stop It Now...

Related Posts
shop cartShop Best Low-Vision Aids with FREE Doctor Consultation.Yes! Let's Go