Macular Degeneration Treatment in India

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Macular degeneration is the gradual deterioration of the macula in your retina that results in blurriness or dark areas in central vision, potentially resulting in permanent loss of it.

As part of an eye exam, your doctor may use an Amsler grid to detect whether straight lines appear faded, broken, or distorted – one effective way of spotting wet macular degeneration.

Stargardt’s Disease

Stargardt’s Disease is an inherited form of macular degeneration. It affects the macula, which is the central area of retina where visual acuity and color vision is highest. A genetic mutation leads to proteins blocking nutrients from reaching cone photoreceptor cells of the macula; over time this leads to gradual loss of central vision that results in blurry or wavy vision, blind spots or difficulty seeing in low light conditions.

People living with Stargardt’s typically experience a gradual loss of central vision that begins during childhood or adolescence, typically manifested by difficulty distinguishing fine detail like letters or faces, an inability to drive or read, difficulty adapting to dim lighting conditions and increased sensitivity to glare.

Stargardt’s is a progressive eye disease, gradually impairing vision over time until reading and other tasks become increasingly challenging. Eventually, central vision becomes unusable altogether; children experiencing difficulties both at school and home.

Children living with Stargardt’s may struggle with the emotional implications of losing their central vision. It is important that these children be encouraged to express their emotions freely instead of suppressing them and seek support from family, friends or professional counselors.

There is no cure for macular degeneration; however, you may be able to reduce its progress with proper eye protection from sunlight by wearing a brimmed hat and sunglasses in direct sunlight. Furthermore, using tools such as Amsler grid and self-testing tools as well as regular visits from an optometrist or ophthalmologist are helpful measures in monitoring vision loss and vision loss.

Condition is typically caused by changes to the ABCA4 gene, leading to abnormal production of proteins that do not function correctly, leading to lipofuscin deposits in the macula. Rare cases may also result from mutations of ELOVL4 genes; these encode a protein involved with transport of fatty acids within photoreceptors; when these become deformed they accumulate fat deposits which accumulate as yellowish clumps on retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer causing cone destruction and ultimately leading to loss of central vision.


Lentigo (commonly referred to as senile spots or age spots) are hyperpigmented macules of skin that become visible after being exposed to sunlight, usually appearing light brown, dark or black in hue. Lentigo can become increasingly prevalent with age and are especially frequent on parts of the body such as hands and faces that experience UV exposure such as face and hands. They are usually signs of photodamage and aging; treatment usually does not seem necessary, though evaluation of any potential changes such as irregular borders or thickening should be evaluated under dermatoscopy guidance – in case there are any concerns lentigo lesions with irregular borders, non-homogenous coloring or thickening they should be biopsied under direct dermatoscope guidance for best results.

These unusual characteristics may indicate the early stages of melanoma, an extremely dangerous and potentially lethal form of skin cancer. Melanoma is defined by abnormal melanocytes in the stratum basale as well as nuclear pleomorphism – two telltale characteristics.

Lentigo maligna can be diagnosed through light microscopy and immunohistochemistry with SOX10. In this instance, SOX10 staining revealed an increase in melanocytes at the dermal-epidermal junction and mildly elongated rete ridges; an atypical lesion was then surgically excised with an 8 mm margin.

There has been much discussion as to whether senile lentigo might be a precursor of maligna lentigomelanoma, making it essential to closely observe these lesions for any changes in appearance or size. Melasma and seborrheic keratoses do not require special monitoring since they do not progress into malignant tumors.

Treatment options for these atypical lesions include surgical removal or topical depigmentation agents such as hydroquinone and cysteamine that have proven efficacy. Azelaic acid and kojic acid appear ineffective, while others such as hydroquinone or cysteamine may provide some relief; patient choice will ultimately depend on what option works best; multidisciplinary clinics with access to both plastic surgery and radiation oncology specialists will help create the most aesthetically pleasing yet functional scar. Alternatively, radiotherapy may also be an option; however only when surgery cannot treat cases amenable enough.

Photodynamic Therapy

Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is an exciting new technique which uses light and drugs in combination to destroy cancer cells, with the potential of revolutionizing tumor therapy in much the same way that penicillin revolutionized pneumonia therapy in the 1930s. PDT is noninvasive and doesn’t harm surrounding tissue; it can be used prior or after chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery or biologic agents; as well as being repeated at multiple locations compared with chemotherapy/radiation which typically require moving the patient from their current location.

At first, a photosensitizing chemical solution is injected or applied directly onto the area needing treatment, followed by exposure to blue light. When combined, oxygen produced from photosensitivity will react with blue light to kill cancerous skin cells or precancerous cells in their process of becoming tumors. Following treatment, patients must remain out of sunlight for several weeks afterward while protecting themselves with hats, long sleeves, gloves, and dark sunglasses to protect from second-degree burns.

Physicians can use this approach to treat various areas of the body, including cancers that develop on or just below the skin or in organ linings. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is one of the most prevalent types of skin cancer; similarly, precancerous spots known as actinic keratoses could one day become cancerous as well as being treated.

Diode lasers represent the latest innovation in photodynamic therapy, emitting specific wavelengths of light that kill cancerous tumors without harming surrounding tissues. This technology has already been successfully applied against lung and esophageal tumors, breast cancers (melanoma), as well as cancers in organ linings.

Photodynamic therapy can also be used to rejuvenate sun damaged skin, including wrinkles, sagginess and pigmented spots. The therapy doesn’t involve any abrasions, chemical peels or laser treatments and works alongside your natural healing processes to bring about visible improvements to its appearance.

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