Eye Diseases List

List of Eye Diseases With Pictures PDF

Table of Contents

Numerous diseases and conditions may contribute to eye problems. Diagnosing them requires an exhaustive ocular exam as well as special tests such as fluorescein dye testing and Schirmer tear tests which measure tear production.

Treatment of eye disease depends on treating its source. Common eye disorders include allergies, autoimmune disorders, vitamin A deficiency and glaucoma.

1. Allergic Conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitis, also known as Eyelid Dermatitis, occurs when your eyes become sensitive to environmental allergens like mold spores, pollen or pet dander. Exposure to such allergens causes reddening, irritation and watery eyes with itching and tear duct inflammation that does not spread among individuals and typically does not lead to permanent vision damage.

Your body produces histamine in response to allergens that irritate cells that line the inside and white portion of your eyeball, making the eyes watery and itchy. Histamine may also irritate eyes through dry eyes, contact lens use or poor hygiene practices – potentially contributing to eye allergies.

There are two kinds of non-allergic conjunctivitis, bacterial and viral. Herpes simplex virus and enterovirus can both lead to conjunctivitis infections; typically treated using antibacterial agents like erythromycin ointment or trimethoprim-polymixin eye drops as antibiotics; for viral conditions, prescription antiviral medication like Acyclovir ointment or Valacyclovir eye drops may provide relief; both forms should usually clear within 24 hours.

2. Autoimmune Disorders

Autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system attacks parts of the body, including joints, muscles, tendons, skin and nerves. Symptoms may include fatigue, general feelings of illness and joint and muscle pain as well as low-grade fever and weight loss or potential eye damage.

Conjunctivitis (pink eye) is an infection or inflammation of the clear tissue covering the front and inner surface of eyelids caused by bacteria, viruses, allergies or environmental irritants such as smoke or dust. Symptoms typically include redness in the white of one or both eyes; redness around tearing canal; excessive discharge from eyes. Most cases resolve within days with over-the-counter antihistamine drops and decongestants; however if symptoms persist consult your healthcare provider immediately.

Chalazion is an infected cystic gland located within the eyelid. Although chalazion may cause changes to vision or discomfort, warm compresses or antibiotic drops may provide relief.

3. Vitamin A Deficiency

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin found in foods, with most being taken in as carotenes or retinoids derived from plants (provitamin A or vitamin A, respectively).1 It’s essential for proper retinal function as well as epithelial cell integrity of conjunctiva and cornea, immunity function, growth and development in infants and play an essential part in immune regulation.

Vitamin A deficiency symptoms include night blindness (nyctalopia), bitot spots, dry, scaling skin and keratomalacia; additionally it may result in poor wound healing and decreased immunity, particularly among newborns.

Ocular signs of vitamin A deficiency typically arise among herbivorous species, such as tortoises and green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Omnivorous reptiles such as bearded dragons and red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) as well as carnivorous lizards or snakes may also exhibit deficiency; similarly omnivorous chameleons which consume plants, berries, fruits or insects may show symptoms.

An extensive history and examination should be performed, along with blood tests to measure serum vitamin A/retinol levels. Securing such tests should be relatively straightforward – all that’s necessary to get them is abstaining from food or beverages for four hours prior to testing, with results usually becoming available within several days.

4. Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a group of conditions that causes irreparable damage to the optic nerve – which connects vision from eyes to brain). This damage occurs as a result of increased intraocular pressure; over time this pressure rises gradually and damages optic nerve fibers, eventually causing peripheral (side) vision loss as it progresses to central vision loss, hence giving rise to its nickname of ‘The Sneak Thief of Sight”.

Your eye pressure is maintained through the production and drainage of an aqueous fluid called “aqueous humor”, produced continuously within your eyes and gradually released through channels located behind the colored part (iris) and clear window of your eye (cornea). Any disruption between production and drainage could increase internal eye pressure over time, potentially damaging your optic nerve.

Open-angle glaucoma is the most prevalent type of glaucoma, characterized by blocked drainage canals in your eye, while narrow-angle glaucoma occurs when the space between iris and cornea becomes smaller with time.

5. Retinal Degeneration

Macular degeneration is an eye condition in which the central retinal area known as the macula breaks down, leading to loss of vision. This disease typically strikes those over age 55, and if left untreated can result in severe central blindness. According to studies, nutrients like lutein and zeaxanthin may help slow its progress – naturally present in foods like kale, spinach and collard greens or available as nutritional supplements.

Macular degeneration symptoms vary but typically involve: gradual deterioration in central vision; distortion of straight lines such as lines in books or road signs, difficulty adapting to dim light levels, flashes of light and new floaters (abnormal particles of jelly-like substance located within the vitreous). Therefore it is vital that regular comprehensive dilated eye exams conducted by an optometry professional help detect any changes to retinal tissue appearance.

15% of cases of dry macular degeneration progress to wet macular degeneration, in which abnormal blood vessels begin to form beneath the retina and cause bleeding, leaking and scarring resulting in severe central vision loss. Early detection is key as laser treatment or cryotherapy may strengthen retina in these areas.

6. Pterygium

Pterygiums are fleshy growths of tissue that begin on the white part of the eye (sclera) and move over onto the cornea, sometimes growing small enough to cause no symptoms or growing large enough to affect vision. Pterygias may develop from pinguecula or on their own and often produce foreign body sensations and redness of the eyes – they may even alter corneal shapes to cause astigmatism.

Pterygium causes are unknown; however, prolonged sun exposure is thought to play a significant role. Pterygium tends to affect those who spend a great deal of time outdoors such as farmers, sailors and surfers. Furthermore, those living in warmer climates are at greater risk.

An unprogressive or nonsymptomatic pterygium does not need treatment; however, lubricating drops and ointments may help ease inflammation. If a large, increasing rapidly or vision-obscuring lesion develops, however, your doctor may recommend surgery to remove it; there are various techniques available such as modified bare sclera technique, transposition of conjunctival flap, peripheral lamellar keratoplasty and amniotic membrane transplantation which your physician will discuss with you when treating large lesions causing vision issues or vision impairment;

7. Cancers of the Surface of the Eye

Eyelid skin, like other areas of skin, can develop moles and growths that may be either benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Most common among them are basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the conjunctiva; although these cancers usually do not spread easily outside their localized region. If left untreated however, they can erode corneal layers causing vision loss.

Melanoma and sebaceous gland carcinoma are among the more serious eye tumors. Melanoma typically appears as a new or expanding skin lesion that is red, purple or black in color and may bleed easily; early detection and treatment are essential in stopping its spread to other parts of the body.

Other malignant tumors that may affect the eye include uveal melanoma, which develops in either the choroid or iris; retinoblastoma (a rare cancer of the retina); and choroidal melanoma. Each requires medical evaluation and treatment from specialists with experience treating eye diseases – these may include surgery, chemotherapy or radiation treatments as needed. Furthermore, cancer from other parts of the body can sometimes seed in the eye, so further investigation should be undertaken carefully if suspected.

About the Author:
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Alexander Suprun

Alex started his first web marketing campaign in 1997 and continues harvesting this fruitful field today. He helped many startups and well-established companies to grow to the next level by applying innovative inbound marketing strategies. For the past 26 years, Alex has served over a hundred clients worldwide in all aspects of digital marketing and communications. Additionally, Alex is an expert researcher in healthcare, vision, macular degeneration, natural therapy, and microcurrent devices. His passion lies in developing medical devices to combat various ailments, showcasing his commitment to innovation in healthcare.


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