Closed Angle Glaucoma Treatment

closed angle glaucoma treatment

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Glaucoma continues to be one of the main global causes of irreversible blindness when it comes to eye health. For the preservation of vision and to stop further damage, closed angle glaucoma is a specific type of glaucoma that needs fast and appropriate treatment. In-depth information about closed angle glaucoma treatment will be covered in this blog article, including definitions, possible courses of action, frequently asked questions (FAQs), and how Lifestyle Vision (LV) can help people see better.

About Closed Angle Glaucoma

Angle-closure glaucoma, also known as closed angle glaucoma, develops when the iris blocks the drainage angle of the eye, obstructing adequate fluid drainage and prompting a sharp increase in intraocular pressure. If not treated right once, this increased pressure could damage the optic nerve and cause vision loss.

Causes of the drainage angle to be blocked by the iris

The main cause of closed angle glaucoma is the iris restricting the drainage angle. Because of how the eye is built anatomically and where the iris is in relation to the drainage angle, this disease develops.

Between the iris (the colored area of the eye) and the cornea (the clear front part of the eye), in a healthy eye, there is a region known as the anterior chamber. The eye continuously produces the clear liquid known as aqueous humor, which enters the anterior chamber through the pupil. The trabecular meshwork, a small passageway at the angle where the cornea and iris meet, is where it exits the eye.

The iris is too near to the drainage angle in closed angle glaucoma, which effectively blocks it. There are various causes for this to occur:

Narrow Drainage Angle

Some people are predisposed to closed angle glaucoma because of their naturally narrower drainage angles. Due to this anatomical difference, the iris is more prone to engage the trabecular meshwork and restrict fluid outflow.


The eye’s lens may get bigger as people age, pushing the iris forward and reducing the drainage angle. The likelihood that the iris may obstruct the angle and result in closed angle glaucoma is increased by this aging-related alteration.

The outer border of the iris comes closer to the drainage angle when the pupil dilates (widens). Low lighting or the use of specific drugs, such as some antidepressants or antihistamines, that promote pupil dilatation, can cause this to occur. This dilatation can cause an acute closed angle glaucoma attack and a rapid obstruction of the drainage angle in those who are vulnerable.

Eye trauma or inflammation

These conditions can cause the iris to move forward, increasing the risk of angle closure and glaucoma.

It’s important to remember that acute or chronic closed angle glaucoma can occur. A sudden and severe obstruction of the drainage angle is referred to as acute closed angle glaucoma and results in an abrupt rise in intraocular pressure and the need for prompt medical care. On the other hand, chronic closed angle glaucoma develops more gradually and could present with milder symptoms, but it still needs continuing therapy to prevent vision loss.

Regular eye exams are important because closed angle glaucoma is a serious condition, and you should visit a doctor right away if you start to feel sick or have significant eye discomfort, a headache, blurred vision, or halos around lights. Early detection and the right care can help preserve eye health and stop permanent vision loss.

Options for Treating Closed Angle Glaucoma

Eye drops

To reduce intraocular pressure and enhance fluid evacuation, eye drops are frequently administered. These drops function by either increasing aqueous humor’s expulsion or decreasing its production. Eye drops given for regular usage can greatly aid in the management of closed angle glaucoma.

Treatment with lasers

Laser trabeculoplasty and laser iridotomy are efficient treatments for closed angle glaucoma. In order to allow for fluid flow, laser iridotomy entails making a tiny hole in the iris, whereas laser trabeculoplasty concentrates on enlarging the drainage angle. Both treatments can be completed without hospitalization and are often quick and safe.


If eye drops and laser therapy are ineffective, intervention through surgery may be required. Common surgical techniques that efficiently reduce intraocular pressure include trabeculectomy and shunt insertion.

Pros and Cons of Each of the Treatments

closed angle glaucoma treatment



  • Non-invasive: Patients often tolerate eye drops well and they are simple to use.

It is practical for patients to use eye drops at home and incorporate them into their daily routine.

  • Effective: When taken as directed, eye drops can help control closed angle glaucoma and lower intraocular pressure.
  • Fewer difficulties Eye drops have fewer risks and problems than surgical treatments.


  • Adherence: Using eye drops correctly is essential for maximizing their effectiveness. It could be difficult for certain people to follow the recommended routine.
  • Eye stinging, redness, and irritation are just a few of the negative effects that eye drops might have.
  • Multiple medications: To obtain the required reduction in intraocular pressure, some individuals may need more than one kind of eye drop.

Laser therapy (laser trabeculoplasty and laser iridotomy):


  • Non-invasive: Laser therapy is an outpatient, minimally invasive method that lowers the risk of complications from surgery.
  • Treatment with a laser is typically short and recovery time is minimal.
  • High success rate: When it comes to clearing blocked drainage angles and enhancing fluid outflow, laser operations have a high success rate.
  • Fewer side effects: When compared to surgery, laser treatments typically have less negative effects.


  • Limited applicability: Laser treatment may not be appropriate in all closed angle glaucoma cases, particularly in more severe or advanced stages.
  • Temporary increase in intraocular pressure: Prior to the desired results being seen, laser treatment may occasionally induce an increase in intraocular pressure.
  • If the benefits of the initial laser therapy fade over time, some patients could need retreatment or more treatments in the future.

Trabeculectomy and shunt implantation surgery


  • Effectiveness over the long run: Surgical techniques can reduce intraocular pressure over the long term and stop additional visual loss.
  • Appropriate for complex cases: Patients who have closed angle glaucoma that is progressed or uncontrolled frequently consider surgical treatments.
  • Less reliance on medication: A successful procedure may result in fewer eye drops being required.
  • Permanent remedy: Surgical treatments are frequently effective in treating closed angle glaucoma.


  • Invasive: Compared to other forms of treatment, surgical procedures have higher risks and need a longer period of recuperation.
  • Potential issues: After surgery, there is a chance of issues including infection, bleeding, or scars.
  • Close observation is necessary: Patients need routine follow-up appointments after surgery to check on their eye pressure and guarantee optimal healing.
  • The outcome of surgical operations is not assured; some patients may need extra interventions or modifications.

It’s crucial to remember that the selection of a course of therapy is influenced by a number of variables, including the severity of the ailment, the patient’s general health, and how they responded to the original course of treatment. Ophthalmologists carefully evaluate each case to identify the best course of action, with the goal of preserving vision and enhancing the patient’s quality of life. The best management of closed angle glaucoma requires frequent eye exams and open contact with medical specialists.

Management Advice for Closed Angle Glaucoma

closed angle glaucoma treatment

Regular Eye Exams

Regular eye exams are essential for glaucoma development monitoring and early identification. Regular consultations with an ophthalmologist can aid in creating the best possible treatment strategy for each patient.

Compliance with Medication

It’s critical to use the eye drops as directed in order to keep the intraocular pressure stable and stop further damage.

Lifestyle Modifications

According to some research, making certain lifestyle changes, such as cutting back on caffeine intake and managing stress levels, may have a good effect on intraocular pressure. Before changing your way of living, however, always speak with an eye care expert.

What is the prognosis for closed angle glaucoma?

The prognosis for closed angle glaucoma depends on several factors, including the timing of diagnosis, the effectiveness of treatment, and individual patient characteristics. Early detection and prompt intervention significantly improve the outlook for individuals with closed angle glaucoma. However, if left untreated or inadequately managed, closed angle glaucoma can lead to irreversible vision loss and potentially blindness.

Timely Diagnosis and Treatment

If closed angle glaucoma is diagnosed early and appropriate treatment is initiated promptly, the prognosis is generally favorable. Treatment options, such as eye drops or laser procedures, can effectively lower intraocular pressure and help prevent further damage to the optic nerve.

Adherence to Treatment

Consistent adherence to the prescribed treatment plan is crucial for maintaining stable intraocular pressure and managing the condition effectively. Patients who follow their ophthalmologist’s recommendations for using eye drops or undergoing necessary procedures have a better prognosis.

Severity of the Condition

The severity of closed angle glaucoma at the time of diagnosis plays a significant role in determining the prognosis. Mild cases may respond well to less invasive treatments, while advanced or severe cases may require more aggressive interventions, such as surgery, and may have a more guarded prognosis.

Individual Variation

The response to treatment and disease progression can vary among individuals. Some patients may experience excellent control of intraocular pressure and maintain good vision, while others may have more challenges in managing the condition.

Regular Monitoring

Regular follow-up visits with the ophthalmologist are essential to monitor the disease’s progression and adjust the treatment plan if necessary. Proactive management and close monitoring can help identify any changes early on and address them promptly.

Complications and Risk Factors

Acute closed angle glaucoma attacks can cause rapid and severe vision loss. If an acute attack occurs, immediate medical attention is crucial to prevent permanent damage.

It’s important to understand that closed angle glaucoma is a chronic condition, and there is currently no cure. However, with early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and diligent management, it is possible to slow or halt the progression of the disease and preserve vision.

Patients diagnosed with closed angle glaucoma should be proactive in managing their eye health, attending regular eye check-ups, and communicating openly with their eye care professionals. By staying informed about their condition and adhering to the treatment plan, patients can significantly improve their long-term prognosis and maintain a higher quality of life.

FAQs Regarding Treatment for Closed Angle Glaucoma

1. Which medication is most effective for angle-closure glaucoma?

The degree of angle-closure glaucoma determines the best course of treatment. Early on, eye drops or laser therapy might be adequate. Advanced conditions, however, can necessitate surgical treatment.

2. Is there a cure for closed-angle glaucoma?

Yes, there is a treatment for closed-angle glaucoma. It is frequently possible to prevent or limit vision loss with early diagnosis and effective care.

3. What medications are prescribed for angle-closure glaucoma?

Prostaglandin analogs, beta-blockers, alpha-adrenergic agonists, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are among the drugs that are frequently administered. These eye drops help to maintain steady drainage and decrease intraocular pressure.

4. How is primary angle-closure glaucoma treated initially?

Due to its ability to effectively establish a second drainage pathway, laser iridotomy is frequently regarded as the first-line treatment for primary angle-closure glaucoma.

5. Which medication should be avoided in angle-closure glaucoma?

Mydriatics and anticholinergic medications should generally be avoided in angle-closure glaucoma as they can precipitate an acute attack.

6. How long does closed angle glaucoma last?

If closed angle glaucoma is untreated for a long time, irreparable visual loss may result. However, the disease’s progression can be stopped or slowed down with prompt and effective therapy, protecting vision.


To protect our priceless sense of sight, closed angle glaucoma needs prompt and efficient treatment. There are many ways to manage this problem, from eye drops and laser therapy to surgical operations. For optimal outcomes, early diagnosis, routine eye exams, and adherence to therapy are essential. Consult an eye care professional as soon as you notice any symptoms or have any worries about your eye health. Remember that preserving a strong vision and improving your entire quality of life can be significantly impacted by early intervention and appropriate care. Keep trying new things and look after your eyes, which are the windows to the world.

About the Author:
Dr Shaun Larsen

Dr Shaun Larsen

Dr. Shaun Larsen is an optometrist who specializes in low vision services and enhancing vision with contact lenses. He has a passion for making people's lives better by helping them see well enough to read, write, or drive again. He always keeps up with the latest technology so he can help people regain their independence.


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